Record 1 of 25 in AGRICOLA (1992-1997)
AN: IND 20603701
AU: Small,-J.A.; Charmley,-E.; Rodd,-A.V.; Fredeen,-A.H.
TI: Serum mineral concentrations in relation to estrus and conception in beef heifers and cows fed conserved forage.
SO: Can-j-anim-sci. Ottawa : Agricultural Institute of Canada, 1957. Mar 1997. v. 77 (1) p. 55-62.
CN: DNAL 41.8-C163
LA: English; Summary in: French
IS: ISSN: 0008-3984
DE: beef-cows. heifers-. cattle-feeding. silage-. estrus-. conception-. mineral-content. blood-serum. phosphorus-. boron-. minerals-. body-weight. body-condition.
AB: A study was undertaken to examine serum mineral concentrations in relation to estrus and first service conception (FSC) in beef cattle fed conserved forage. Blood samples were taken from yearling nulliparous heifers, and suckled 2-yr-old primiparous heifers and multiparous cows at first service which occurred within 12 h of observed standing heat and 21 d after. Serum was analyzed for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and boron (B) concentrations by ICAP. Heifers were fed in four groups based on parity and given 3.0 and 2.5 kg hd d-1 of a grain supplement, respectively, plus free-choice grass hay (1.71% K; 0.20% P; 8% protein; 41% ADF). Cows were individually fed ad libitum (21 g kg-1 body weight) grass-legume silage (2.82% K; 0.35% P; 14% protein, 34% ADF). Heifers and cows gained body weight over the breeding season and at turnout had body condition scores of 5 to 6 for heifers and 6 to 7 for cows. Rates of FSC were 53% (10/19), 48% (10/21) and 64% (18/28) for nulli-, primi- and multiparous groups, respectively. Serum Ca, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn did not differ (P > 0.05) between FSC groups, but Na and Cu were higher (P < 0.05) at estrus than at day 21, especially in nulliparous heifers. Concentrations of serum Mg were low (< 0.74 mmol L-1) and K high (> 4.5 mmol L-1) in heifers and cows but in nulliparous heifers only, serum Mg and K was lowest (P < 0.05) at estrus for those that conceived. Serum B concentrations were generally higher (P < 0.05) in animals that conceived especially on day 21 when B concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) than at estrus.
Serum P concentrations were high (> 3.5 mmol L-1), but highest in animals that conceived especially on day 21. It is concluded that P and B may be dietary factors limiting first service conception in beef cows fed conserved forage.
Record 2 of 25 in AGRICOLA (1992-1997)
AN: IND 20381943
AU: Rossi,-A.F.; Miles,-R.D.; Bootwalla,-S.M.; Wilson,-H.R.; Eldred,-A.R.
TI: The effect of feeding two sources of boron on broiler breeder performance.
SO: Poultry-sci. Champaign, IL : Poultry Science Association, 1921-. Oct 1993. v. 72 (10) p. 1931-1934.
CN: DNAL 47.8-Am33P
IS: ISSN: 0032-5791
DE: broilers-. boron-. dietary-minerals. borax-. boric-acid. egg-hatchability. hens-. eggs-. egg-weight. specific-gravity. egg-shell. weight-. cocks-. semen-characters.
AB: Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary boron supplementations of 0 and 250 ppm fed as either boric acid or sodium tetraborate (borax). In Experiment 1, 45 females were caged individually at 21 wk of age and fed the three experimental diets. Starting at the onset of egg production (27 wk of age), all females were inseminated twice weekly with .05 cc pooled undiluted semen. Eggs collected at 30, 31, and 32 wk of age were incubated. None of the treatments caused feed rejection. Mortality, age at 5% production, egg production, body weight, egg weight, egg specific gravity, shell weight, and fertility were not affected by the treatments. However, hatchability was reduced by feeding the boron diets. In Experiment 2, males were fed the same dietary treatments. Body weight, fertility, hatchability, and total sperm concentration were not affected. However, the percentage of damaged sperm cells was significantly increased in the groups fed boron.
Record 3 of 25 in AGRICOLA (1992-1997)
AN: FNI 93000888
TI: The essentiality of ultra trace elements for reproduction and pre- and postnatal development.
SO: Nestle-Nutr-Workshop-Ser. New York, N.Y. : Raven Press. 1991. v. 23 p. 119-144.
CN: DNAL RC620.A1N47
IS: ISSN: 0742-2806
DE: trace-elements. fetal-development. infant-development. reproduction-. mineral-deficiencies. molybdenum-. fluoride-. tissues-. mineral-content. milk-. vanadium-. nickel-. arsenic-. lithium-. lead-. boron-. bromine-. mortality-. animal-experiments. literature-reviews.
AB: Data on the biological essentiality of several trace elements for reproduction and pre- and postnatal development are presented in this chapter. They are almost exclusively the results of animal experiments.
Record 4 of 25 in SilverPlatter MEDLINE(R) (2001/01-2001/10)
TI: The effect of pregnancy on renal clearance of boron in humans: a study based on normal dietary intake of boron.
AU: Pahl,-M-V; Culver,-B-D; Strong,-P-L; Murray,-F-J; Vaziri,-N-D
SO: Toxicol-Sci. 2001 Apr; 60(2): 252-6
AB: Boron occurs most frequently in nature as borates and boric acid, never as the free element. Its largest uses are in glass, detergents, and agriculture. Essential for higher plants, there is growing evidence for essentiality in vertebrates. Humans consume daily about a milligram of boron, mostly from fruit and vegetables. At high doses, boron is a developmental and reproductive toxin in animals. Pregnant rats were the most sensitive. An oral NOAEL of 9.6 mg B/kg/day was established for developmental toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats fed boric acid. To extrapolate from the large, animal boron toxicity database to humans, especially to pregnant women, information on renal clearance of boron was needed. This study's purpose was to measure renal clearance of boron in pregnant and nonpregnant woman. In 16 second trimester women and 15 nonpregnant age-matched referents, dietary boron provided the blood and urine boron concentrations used for calculating boron clearance. The pregnant and nonpregnant boron intake was 1.35 and 1.31 mg boron/24 h, respectively. Blood for boron, creatinine, and urea was collected at the start, at 2 h, and at 24 h. Urine was collected during the first 2 h in the Clinical Research Center and during a 22-h period outside the center for measurement of volume, boron, and creatinine. Renal boron clearance measured over the initial 2 h, the most complete urine collection period, was 68.30ml/min/1.73 m(2) for pregnant subjects and 54.31ml/min/1.73 m(2) for nonpregnant subjects. Comparison of renal boron clearance with creatinine clearance indicated that tubular reabsorption of boron occurred in both pregnant and nonpregnant women.
Record 5 of 25 in SilverPlatter MEDLINE(R) (2001/01-2001/10)
TI: Chronic boron or copper deficiency induces limb teratogenesis in Xenopus.
AU: Fort,-D-J; Stover,-E-L; Rogers,-R-L; Copley,-H-F; Morgan,-L-A; Foster,-E-R
SO: Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 2000 Nov; 77(2): 173-87
AB: Sets of adult male and female Xenopus laevis were administered a boron-deficient (-B) diet under low-boron culture conditions, a boron-supplemented (+B) diet under ambient boron culture conditions, a copper-deficient (-Cu) diet under low-copper culture conditions, or a copper-supplemented (+Cu) diet under ambient copper culture conditions, for 120 d. Adults from each group were' subsequently bred, and the progeny were cultured and bred. Results from these studies indicated that although pronounced effects on adult reproduction and early embryo-larval development were noted in the -B F1 generation, no effects on limb development were observed. No significant effects on reproduction, early embryogenesis, or limb development were noted in the +B group, irrespective of generation. Highly specific forelimb and hindlimb defects, including axial flexures resulting in crossed limbs and reduction deficits, were observed in -B F2 larvae, but not in the +B F2 larvae. As was noted in the boron-deficiency studies, significant effects on reproduction and early embryo development were observed in the -Cu F1 generation, but not in the +Cu F, generation. Unlike the effects associated with boron deficiency, maldevelopment of the hindlimbs (32 responders, n = 40) was found in the F1 generation.
Record 6 of 25 in SilverPlatter MEDLINE(R) (2001/01-2001/10)
TI: Intracellular calcium store depletion and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa: role of calcium and plasma membrane potential.
AU: Rossato,-M; Di-Virgilio,-F; Rizzuto,-R; Galeazzi,-C; Foresta,-C
SO: Mol-Hum-Reprod. 2001 Feb; 7(2): 119-28
AB: We evaluated the presence and role of internal calcium stores in human uncapacitated spermatozoa by determining the effects of two inhibitors of Ca2+ ATPase of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum (SERCA-ATPase), thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) on intracellular calcium concentrations, [Ca2+](i), plasma membrane potential and acrosome reaction. Using a fluorescent conjugate of thapsigargin, we localized internal Ca2+ stores on the acrosome, post-acrosomal region and sperm midpiece. SERCA-ATPase inhibitors induced a rise in [Ca2+](i) both in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free media but under these latter conditions it was reduced with a progressive decline to baseline values; the re-addition of Ca2+-stimulated a rise in [Ca2+](i). This demonstrated that internal Ca2+ store depletion can evoke the opening of Ca2+-channels on sperm plasma membrane, thus showing the existence of "capacitative" Ca2+ entry into these specialized cells. The addition of thapsigargin to human spematozoa induced a dose-dependent increase in acrosome reaction percentages, but only when Ca2+ was present in the external medium. Plasma membrane potential monitoring showed that these inhibitors induced a depolarization dependent on Ca2+ influx from external medium and that this was preceded by a transient hyperpolarization caused by activation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels. When K+-dependent plasma membrane hyperpolarization was inhibited, the thapsigargin- and CPA-stimulated rise in [Ca2+](i) plasma membrane depolarization and acrosome reaction were abolished. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that human spermatozoa possess internal Ca2+ stores and that the capacitative Ca2+ entry pathway present in these cells regulates important biological processes that are fundamental for the acrosome reaction.
Record 7 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: The emergence of boron as nutritionally important throughout the life cycle.
SO: Nutrition. 2000 Jul-Aug; 16(7-8): 512-4
Record 8 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: Localization of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) protein and messenger ribonucleic acid in rat epididymis.
AU: Jensen,-L-J; Schmitt,-B-M; Berger,-U-V; Nsumu,-N-N; Boron,-W-F; Hediger,-M-A; Brown,-D; Breton,-S
SO: Biol-Reprod. 1999 Mar; 60(3): 573-9
AB: An acidic environment is important for sperm maturation in the epididymis and also helps to maintain mature sperm in an immotile state during storage in this organ. Both an Na+/H+ exchanger and an H+ATPase have been implicated in this process. The H+ATPase is concentrated in specialized apical (and/or narrow) and clear cells of the epididymis, while the Na+/H+ exchanger has not yet been localized in situ. As in other proton-secreting epithelia, bicarbonate transport occurs in the epididymis, where it is implicated in luminal acidification. In this study we used an antibody raised against a fusion protein (maltose-binding protein: MBP-NBC-5) from the C-terminus of the recently cloned rat kidney Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) to localize this protein in the epididymis and vas deferens of the rat. The distribution of the respective mRNA was mapped by in situ hybridization. NBC message was strongly expressed in the initial segment and the intermediate zone of the epididymis, and the NBC-5 antibody gave a strong basolateral staining in both principal cells and apical/narrow cells in this region. Western blotting revealed a single band at about 160 kDa in the epididymis. The intensity of staining as well as mRNA levels decreased in the cauda epididymidis and in the vas deferens, where only weak staining was seen. Basolateral NBC may function in parallel with apical proton secretion to regulate luminal acidification and/or bicarbonate reabsorption in the excurrent duct system.
Record 9 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: The sex ratio of offspring of people exposed to boron.
SO: Reprod-Toxicol. 1999 May-Jun; 13(3): 235
Record 10 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: Chronic feeding of a low boron diet adversely affects reproduction and development in Xenopus laevis.
AU: Fort,-D-J; Stover,-E-L; Strong,-P-L; Murray,-F-J; Keen,-C-L
SO: J-Nutr. 1999 Nov; 129(11): 2055-60
AB: The aims of this work were as follows: 1) to determine whether a purified diet currently used for studies with rats was acceptable for reproductive studies in frogs; and 2) to determine whether frogs are sensitive to a deficit of boron (B) in the diet. Adult Xenopus laevis were fed a nonpurified beef liver and lung (BLL) diet (310 microg B/kg), a purified diet supplemented with boron (+B; 1850 microg B/kg), or a purified diet low in boron (-B; 45 microg B/kg) for 120 d. Frogs fed the BLL and +B diets produced 11.3 and 12.2% necrotic eggs, respectively. Abnormal gastrulation occurred in <4% of the fertilized eggs in both groups, and 96-h larval survival exceeded 75% in both groups. In contrast, frogs fed the -B diet for 120 d produced a high proportion of necrotic eggs (54%). Fertilized embryos from the -B diet-fed frogs showed a high frequency of abnormal gastrulation (26.8%), and >80% of the embryos died before 96 h of development. Mean embryo cell counts at X. laevis developmental stage 7.5 (mid-blastula) were significantly lower in the -B embryos than in the BLL or +B embryos. BLL and -B embryos grown in low boron culture media had a high frequency of malformations compared with embryos grown in boron-supplemented media. These studies show that a purified diet that has been used in rodent studies was acceptable for reproduction studies in X. laevis. This work also demonstrates that a diet low in boron markedly impairs normal reproductive function in adult X. laevis, and that administration of the low boron diet results in an increase in both incidence and severity of adverse effects. In addition, these studies demonstrate the usefulness of the X. laevis model in nutrition studies.
Record 11 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: General, reproductive, developmental, and endocrine toxicity of boronated compounds.
AU: Fail,-P-A; Chapin,-R-E; Price,-C-J; Heindel,-J-J
SO: Reprod-Toxicol. 1998 Jan-Feb; 12(1): 1-18
AB: Boric acid and inorganic borates are abundant in nature. They are widely used in industrial, agricultural, cosmetic, and numerous smaller applications. These compounds are toxic to all species tested at high doses, but they are not carcinogenic or mutagenic. The major toxicities are reproductive and developmental. Testicular effects occurred at approximately 26 mg boron equivalents/kg body weight (bw)/d (26 mg boron equivalent (BE)/kg bw/d). New data on endocrine toxicity includes altered follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone within 14 d of treatment. Because these hormonal changes may be secondary effects of testicular toxicity, borates are not suspect as endocrine disrupters. The most sensitive of all the endpoints are prenatal growth and morphologic development in the rat; these changes occurred at a dose of 12.9 mg BE/kg bw/d. The no observed adverse effect level for rat fetal development was 9.6 mg/kg BE. Considering the estimated human exposure levels and a safety factor of 30, humans are not at significant risk of reproductive failure due to borates from environmental sources. The margin of exposure is estimated at 72 for males and 129 for females. Thus, the likelihood of human toxicity caused by boric acid and inorganic borates from exposure during normal activities is remote.
CN: N01ES65141ESNIEHS; N01ES95255ESNIEHS
Record 12 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: In vivo and in vitro effects of boron and boronated compounds.
AU: Benderdour,-M; Bui-Van,-T; Dicko,-A; Belleville,-F
SO: J-Trace-Elem-Med-Biol. 1998 Mar; 12(1): 2-7
AB: Boron is ubiquitously present in soils and water. Associated with pectin it is essential for vascular plants as a component of cell walls, and it stabilizes cell membranes. It is required for the growth of pollen tubes and is involved in membrane transport, stimulating H(+)-pumping ATPase activity and K+ uptake. However, a high boron concentration in the soils is toxic to plants and some boronated derivatives are used as herbicides. An absolute requirement for boron has not been definitively demonstrated in animals and humans. However, experiments with boron supplementation or deprivation show that boron is involved in calcium and bone metabolism, and its effects are more marked when other nutrients (cholecalciferol, magnesium) are deficient. Boron supplementation increases the serum concentration of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone but boron excess has toxic effects on reproductive function. Boron may be involved in cerebral function via its effects on the transport across membranes. It affects the synthesis of the extracellular matrix and is beneficial in wound healing. Usual dietary boron consumption in humans is 1-2 mg/day for adults. As boron has been shown to have biological activity, research into the chemistry of boronated compounds has increased. Boronated compounds have been shown to be potent anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory, hypolipemic, anti-coagulant and anti-neoplastic agents both in vitro and in vivo in animals.
Record 13 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: Adverse reproductive and developmental effects in Xenopus from insufficient boron.
AU: Fort,-D-J; Propst,-T-L; Stover,-E-L; Strong,-P-L; Murray,-F-J
SO: Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 1998 Winter; 66(1-3): 237-59
AB: Frog embryo teratogenesis assay--Xenopus (FETAX) was utilized as a model system to evaluate the effects on embryo-larval development at various low boron (B) exposure levels in the culture media. Concentrations tested ranged from < 1 to 5000 microg B/L. A statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in malformations was observed at < or = 3 microg B/L, but not at the greater concentrations. Abnormal development of the gut, craniofacial region and eye, visceral edema, and kinking of the tail musculature (abnormal myotome development) and notochord were observed. In subsequent studies, adult frogs were maintained for 28 d on two diets: (1) low B (LB, 62 microg B/kg) or (2) boric acid supplemented (BA, 1851 microg B/kg); the frogs were subsequently mated, and their offspring were cultured in media containing various levels of B. Results of the 28-d depletion studies indicated that frogs maintained under LB conditions produced a greater proportion of (1) necrotic eggs and (2) fertilized embryos, which abnormally gastrulated at a greater rate and were substantially less viable than embryos from frogs fed the BA diet. Malformations similar to those seen in the initial study were observed in embryos from the B-depleted adults maintained in an LB environment; 28 d on the LB diet enhanced the incidence of malformations associated with the LB culture media. These abnormalities were not observed in embryos cultured in > or = 4 microg B/L from adults cultured on the BA diet. These studies showed that insufficient B reproducibly interfered with normal Xenopus laevis development during organogenesis, substantially impaired normal reproductive function in adult frogs, and thus represent the first studies demonstrating the nutritional essentiality of B in an amphibian species.
Record 14 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: Assessing the effects of low boron diets on embryonic and fetal development in rodents using in vitro and in vivo model systems.
AU: Lanoue,-L; Taubeneck,-M-W; Muniz,-J; Hanna,-L-A; Strong,-P-L; Murray,-F-J; Nielsen,-F-H; Hunt,-C-D; Keen,-C-L
SO: Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 1998 Winter; 66(1-3): 271-98
AB: To date, boron (B) essentiality has not been conclusively shown in mammals. This article summarizes the results of a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments designed to investigate the role of B in mammalian reproduction. In the first study, rat dams were fed either a low (0.04 microg B/g) or an adequate (2.00 microg B/g) B diet for 6 wk before breeding and through pregnancy; reproductive outcome was monitored on gestation day 20. Although low dietary B significantly lowered maternal blood, liver, and bone B concentrations, it had no marked effects on fetal growth or development. The goal of the second study was to assess the effects of B on the in vitro development of rat postimplantation embryos. Day 10 embryos collected from dams fed either the low or adequate B diets for at least 12 wk were cultured in serum collected from male rats exposed to one of the two dietary B treatments. Dams fed the low B diet had a significantly reduced number of implantation sites compared to dams fed the B-adequate diet. However, embryonic growth in vitro was not affected by B treatment. The aim of study 3 was to define the limits of boric acid (BA) toxicity on mouse preimplantation development in vitro. Two-cell mouse embryos were cultured in media containing graded levels of BA (from 6 to 10,000 microM). Impaired embryonic differentiation and proliferation were observed only when embryos were exposed to high levels of BA (>2000 microM), reflecting a very low level of toxicity of BA on early mouse embryonic development. Study 4 tested the effects of low (0.04 microg B/g) and adequate (2.00 microg B/g) dietary B on the in vitro development of mouse preimplantation embryos. Two-cell embryos obtained from the dams were cultured in vitro for 72 h. Maternal exposure to the low B diet for 10, 12, and 16 wk was associated with a reduction in blastocyst formation, a reduction in blastocyst cell number, and an increased number of degenerates. Collectively, these studies support the concept that B deficiency impairs early embryonic development in rodents.
CN: HD01743HDNICHD; HD26777HDNICHD
Record 15 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: The effects of dietary boric acid on bone strength in rats.
AU: Chapin,-R-E; Ku,-W-W; Kenney,-M-A; McCoy,-H
SO: Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 1998 Winter; 66(1-3): 395-9
AB: The effects of dietary boron (B) (from boric acid [BA]) on bone strength were evaluated using male F344 rats. B was administered by dietary admixture of BA to NIH-07 feed at concentrations of 200, 1000, 3000, and 9000 ppm. The latter two levels were found in previous studies to be reproductively toxic to both males and the developing fetus. The first two levels are below and just at, respectively, the levels for producing fetal malformations, and are below the dose required to produce male reproductive toxicity. Resistance to destructive testing was measured on femora, tibiae, and lumbar vertebrae. Although femur and tibia resistance to bending force were not affected by any amount of dietary B, vertebral resistance to a crushing force was increased by approximately 10%, at all dose levels (200-9000 ppm). These data show that even levels of BA that are not reproductively toxic can affect the strength of the axial skeleton in rats.
Record 16 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1998-2000)
TI: Boron tolerable intake: re-evaluation of toxicokinetics for data-derived uncertainty factors.
AU: Dourson,-M; Maier,-A; Meek,-B; Renwick,-A; Ohanian,-E; Poirier,-K
SO: Biol-Trace-Elem-Res. 1998 Winter; 66(1-3): 453-63
AB: Boron, which is ubiquitous in the environment, causes developmental and reproductive effects in experimental animals. This observation has led to efforts to establish a Tolerable Intake value for boron. Although risk assessors agree on the use of fetal weight decreases observed in rats as an appropriate critical effect, consensus on the adequacy of toxicokinetic data as a basis for replacement of default uncertainty factors remains to be reached. A critical analysis of the existing data on boron toxicokinetics was conducted to clarify the appropriateness of replacing default uncertainty factors (10-fold for interspecies differences and 10-fold for intraspecies differences) with data-derived values. The default uncertainty factor for variability in response from animals to humans of 10-fold (default values of 4-fold for kinetics and 2.5-fold for dynamics) was recommended, since clearance of boron is 3- to 4-fold higher in rats than in humans and data on dynamic differences--in order to modify the default value--are unavailable. A data-derived adjustment of 6-fold (1.8 for kinetics and 3.1 for dynamics) rather than the default uncertainty factor of 10-fold was considered appropriate for intrahuman variability, based on variability in glomerular filtration rate during pregnancy in humans and the lack of available data on dynamic differences. Additional studies to investigate the toxicokinetics of boron in rats would be useful to provide a stronger basis for replacement of default uncertainty factors for interspecies variation.
Record 17 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1995-1997)
TI: An assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR Evaluative Process for Assessing Human Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Agents. Expert Scientific Committee.
SO: Reprod-Toxicol. 1997 Jan-Feb; 11(1): 123-60
AB: BACKGROUND: Boron is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in nature in the form of borates at low concentrations in soils and rocks. Boron is released from these minerals by the natural weathering processes in the form of boric acid, which is water soluble and biologically available. High levels of boric acid are naturally found in sea water. Boric acid and borax are used in the greatest quantities and represent the major boron chemical exposures to humans and the environment. The principal use of boric acid and borax is in the manufacture of various types of glass products that do not result in exposure to the consumer. Boric acid and borax are also found in an array of consumer goods including fireproofing for fabrics and wood, insecticides, and in many cosmetics and personal care products as well. Boron may be an essential element for higher animals including humans. HUMAN EXPOSURE: Boric acid and borax are considered to be completely absorbed by the oral route of exposure. Absorption through intact skin is considered negligible, although absorption can occur through denuded or irritated skin. Boron levels in the body do not persist upon cessation of exposure. People may be exposed to boron through three primary sources: 1) consumption of private, municipal, or commercial (bottled) sources of drinking water; 2) dietary consumption of crops and other foodstuffs (including dietary supplements for body building); and 3) inhalation of boron compounds during their mining, manufacturing, and other industrial processing. While boron has been detected in 81.8% of the municipal water systems, it is a minor source of boron in most parts of the U.S. The mean boron concentration is reported as 0.2 mg B/L. However, residents of California and other western states with boron-rich geologic deposits may be regularly exposed to higher levels in drinking water. Individuals who drink bottled mineral water may also increase their exposure to boron. An EPA health advisory, recommends boron concentrations in drinking water not exceed 0.6 mg B/L [0.06 mM B] over a lifetime of exposure. Dietary exposure to boron for an adult typically ranges from ranges from 0.25 to 3.1 mg B/d with an average of 1.5 mg B/d. The high end of the exposure range, 3.1 mg B/d, was selected by the Expert Committee as best estimate of exposure. It should be noted that a diet high in fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, and other food stuffs with high boron contents may lead to daily exposures as high as 10 mg B/d from diet alone. Some body building supplements contain boron at levels ranging from 1.5 to 10 mg B, with a median of 4 mg B. Use of the supplements containing the median concentration of boron could equal the daily intake an individual receives from diet and drinking water combined. Adults in the U.S. at the high end of the food exposure range may typically ingest up to 3.5 mg B/d, or a daily dose of 0.005 mmol B/kg b.wt., through exposure from diet (3.1 mg B/d) and drinking water (0.4 mg B/d). Individuals who also use body-building supplements may have a total daily boron intake of 7.5 mg B resulting in a daily dose of 0.01 mmol B/kg b.wt./d. Occupational exposure to boron is mainly through inhalation of borate containing dust during mining and manufacturing processes. Current occupational exposures to boron are reported to result in a daily dose of < 0.0001 to 0.2 mmol B/kg b.wt./d. Current U.S. OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) for sodium tetraborates is 10 mg/m3, and the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration PEL is 5 mg/m3. An exposure of 5 mg B/m3 translates to approximately 0.01 mmol B/kg b.wt./d that, coincidentally, is the same as exposure levels associated with combined municipal drinking water, diet, and body building supplement consumption. Infants may receive exposures to boric acid when it is used as a household insecticide for cockroach control. Exposure from boric acid-containing cosmetic and personal care products applie
Record 18 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1995-1997)
TI: Blood boron concentrations in pregnant rats fed boric acid throughout gestation.
AU: Price,-C-J; Strong,-P-L; Murray,-F-J; Goldberg,-M-M
SO: Reprod-Toxicol. 1997 Nov-Dec; 11(6): 833-42
AB: Timed-mated Sprague-Dawley rats (28 to 32/group) were exposed to boric acid (BA) in the diet from Gestational Day (GD) 0 to 20. Dietary concentrations of added BA (0%, 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.075%, 0.100%, or 0.200%) yielded average daily intakes equivalent to 0, 3, 6, 10, 13, or 25 mg boron/kg body weight/d. Dams and their fetuses were evaluated for evidence of maternal or developmental toxicity, as reported previously. At termination on GD 20, maternal whole blood was collected in heparinized Vacutainer tubes, stored frozen (-20 degrees C), and subsequently prepared by a high-temperature alkaline ashing procedure for analysis of boron by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Increasing dietary concentrations of BA were positively associated with whole blood boron concentrations in confirmed pregnant rats, specifically 0.229 +/- 0.143, 0.564 +/- 0.211, 0.975 +/- 0.261, 1.27 +/- 0.298, 1.53 +/- 0.546, or 2.82 +/- 0.987 micrograms boron/g whole blood (mean +/- SD) for the control through high-dose groups. Maternal blood boron concentrations were positively correlated with indices of maternal dietary intake of boron and with embryo/fetal toxicity observed at 0.100% and 0.200% BA in the diet reported previously. Thus, blood boron concentrations of 1.27 +/- 0.298 and 1.53 +/- 0.546 micrograms boron/g were associated with the no-observed-adverse-effect level (10 mg boron/kg/d) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (13 mg boron/kg/d) for developmental toxicity reported previously.
Record 19 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1993-1994)
TI: The reproductive toxicity of boric acid.
AU: Chapin,-R-E; Ku,-W-W
SO: Environ-Health-Perspect. 1994 Nov; 102 Suppl 787-91
AB: Previous studies on the reproductive toxicity of boric acid have indicated that male rodents suffer testicular atrophy after treatment. There were, however, no studies of the potential effects on female fertility or on the neonate. In addition, no study described the development of the testicular lesion, thought to be related to the mechanism of toxicity. A Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding (RACB) study using mice exposed to boric acid at 1000, 4500, and 9000 ppm in the diet indicated that there are probably multiple sites of action, although male fertility appears very sensitive. Possible effects on female fertility cannot be separated from potential developmental toxicity and need additional investigation. Decrements in sperm motility were observed at all exposure levels, and testicular atrophy was confirmed in high- and middle-dose-group males. This was investigated further by timed serial-sacrifice studies using 9000 ppm in the diet of rats, which found that the first lesion seen in the testis was an inhibition of spermiation (release of mature spermatids). With continued dosing, this was followed by a disorganization of the normal ordered layering of the seminiferous epithelium, germ cell sloughing and death, and finally, atrophy. Subsequent studies using additional doses (2000, 3000, 4500, 6000, and 9000 ppm) found that it was possible to observe inhibited spermiation that did not progress to atrophy (4500 ppm and below) within the 9-week exposure period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Record 20 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1993-1994)
TI: Mechanism of the testicular toxicity of boric acid in rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.
AU: Ku,-W-W; Chapin,-R-E
SO: Environ-Health-Perspect. 1994 Nov; 102 Suppl 799-105
AB: High-dose boric acid (BA) exposure produces testicular lesions in adult rats characterized by inhibited spermiation (IS) that may progress to atrophy. In vivo and in vitro studies addressed possible mechanisms. In vivo, boron tissue disposition was examined, since no detailed data existed, and relevant boron concentrations for in vitro studies needed to be set. Since BA induces riboflavinuria and also affects calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, and testis zinc appears essential for normal testis function, we examined BA effects on flavin status and testis levels of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn). Data showed that the testicular toxicity and central nervous system (CNS) hormonal effect were not due to selective boron accumulation in testis or brain/hypothalamus, with testis boron concentrations at approximately 1 to 2 mM; that riboflavin deficiency is not involved, due to both the absence of overt signs of deficiency and effects on tissue flavin content during BA exposure; and that changes in testis P, Ca and Zn levels did not precede atrophy, and are therefore unlikely to be mechanistically relevant. In vitro studies addressed the hallmarks of the BA testicular toxicity: the mild hormone effect, the initial IS, and atrophy. No effect of BA on the steroidogenic function of isolated Leydig cells was observed, supporting the contention of a CNS-mediated rather than a direct hormone effect. Since increased testicular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) produces IS, and a role for the serine proteases plasminogen activators (PAs) in spermiation has been proposed, we examined in vitro BA effects on both Sertoli cell cAMP accumulation and PA activity, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Record 21 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1993-1994)
TI: Testicular toxicity of boric acid (BA): relationship of dose to lesion development and recovery in the F344 rat.
AU: Ku,-W-W; Chapin,-R-E; Wine,-R-N; Gladen,-B-C
SO: Reprod-Toxicol. 1993 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 305-19
AB: High-dose boric acid (BA) produces testicular lesions in adult rats, characterized by inhibited spermiation followed by atrophy. The present study addressed whether inhibited spermiation can be separated from atrophy based on dose, compared testis boron (B) dosimetry to lesion development, determined how inhibited spermiation was reflected by common reproductive endpoints, and examined reversibility of the testicular lesions. Rats were fed 3000, 4500, 6000, or 9000 ppm BA for up to 9 weeks and examined. Recovery was assessed for up to 32 weeks post treatment. Inhibited spermiation could be separated from atrophy based on dose (inhibited spermiation: 3000/4500 ppm; atrophy: 6000/9000 ppm), with each lesion aspect expressed at different threshold testis B concentrations (inhibited spermiation: 5.6 micrograms B/g and atrophy: 11.9 micrograms B/g) with no B accumulation during the 9-week exposure. These data suggest that separate mechanisms may be operating for these lesion aspects based on testis B concentration and that B dose rate was important for testicular toxicity. Inhibited spermiation was most reliably reflected by informed testicular histology, with the more severe cases decreasing epididymal sperm count to levels that could affect fertility. After treatment, serum and testis B levels in all dose groups rapidly fell to background levels at the earliest time points evaluated (7 days and 8 weeks posttreatment, respectively). The severely inhibited spermiation at 4500 ppm was resolved by 16 weeks posttreatment, but areas of focal atrophy were detected that did not recover posttreatment. Also, no signs of recovery from atrophy were observed (6000 and 9000 ppm). Atrophic tubules contained a normal complement of spermatogonia (2.6 to 2.9 germ cells/100 Sertoli cells), with occasional dividing and degenerating germ cells. Elevations in serum FSH and LH levels suggested an intact hormonal response to the atrophy. In summary, 1) the different aspects of the BA-induced testicular lesion can be separated using different doses, 2) inhibited spermiation does not necessarily proceed to atrophy, and 3) there is no recovery from the atrophy despite the absence of testis B after treatment. The ability to separate inhibited spermiation from atrophy based on dose and testis B dosimetry will be useful in evaluating possible mechanisms. Furthermore, the presence of dividing spermatogonia during long-term BA-induced atrophy suggests that this model should be useful for identifying critical components involved in the reinitiation of spermatogenesis.
Record 22 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1990-1992)
TI: Tissue disposition of boron in male Fischer rats.
AU: Ku,-W-W; Chapin,-R-E; Moseman,-R-F; Brink,-R-E; Pierce,-K-D; Adams,-K-Y
SO: Toxicol-Appl-Pharmacol. 1991 Oct; 111(1): 145-51
AB: Boric acid (H3BO3), an inorganic acid with widespread commercial use and consumer exposure, impairs fertility in male rodents at dose levels lower than those required to cause other adverse effects. Previous studies found a testicular lesion in adult Fischer rats fed 9000 ppm boric acid (1575 ppm boron) and slightly reduced basal serum testosterone levels. A CNS-mediated hormonal component to this lesion was suggested. Detailed data on the tissue disposition of boron in the rat, including accessory sex organs and the brain, are lacking. This study examined the tissue disposition of boron in reproductive, accessory sex organs, and other selected tissues in adult male Fischer rats fed 9000 ppm boric acid to determine if selective accumulation of boron in reproductive tissues, accessory sex organs, and/or the brain might correlate with and explain the apparent selective testicular toxicity. Adult male Fischer rats were fed 9000 ppm boric acid for up to 7 days. Animals were killed at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 days after the start of exposure. Plasma and excised tissues were heat-digested in acid and analyzed for boron by inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICAP). With the exception of adrenal glands, control boron levels in all tissues examined were below 4 micrograms/g. There was a rapid increase in plasma and tissue boron 1 day after the start of exposure (range 2- to 20-fold), with the exception of adipose tissue. With the exception of bone and adipose tissue, all soft tissues examined, including the testis, epididymis, accessory sex organs, hypothalamus, and rest of brain, appeared to reach steady-state boron levels (range 12-30 micrograms/g) by 3-4 days. Bone boron levels continued to increase up to the termination at 7 days (40-50 micrograms/g by Day 7). Bone attained the greatest concentration of boron (2- to 3-fold over plasma levels) while levels in adipose tissue were 20% of plasma levels during the 7-day exposure period. All other tissues appeared to show no appreciable accumulation of boron over plasma levels. The data suggest that neither the apparent selective testicular toxicity nor the slight CNS hormonal effect associated with boric acid exposure can be explained on the basis of selective accumulation of boron in the testis or brain/hypothalamus, respectively. Thus, the testicular toxicity is likely the result of certain biological processes that are unique to the testis and which are targets of boron exposure.
Record 23 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1990-1992)
TI: Development of testicular lesions in F344 rats after treatment with boric acid.
AU: Treinen,-K-A; Chapin,-R-E
SO: Toxicol-Appl-Pharmacol. 1991 Feb; 107(2): 325-35
AB: Boric acid is an inorganic acid that impairs fertility in male rodents. A reproductive assessment by continuous breeding study found that male rats treated with boric acid had decreased fertility and sperm motility. In order to determine the cell type that is first affected by boric acid, we have examined the development of the boric acid-induced testicular lesion by light and electron microscopy. Adult F344 male rats were fed 9000 ppm boric acid in NIH-07 rat chow for up to 4 weeks. The first testicular lesion noted was an inhibition of spermiation, which appeared by Day 7. Widespread exfoliation of apparently viable germ cells, and pachytene cell death in stages VII and XIV, appeared as exposure continued. After 28 days of dosing, extreme epithelial disorganization and germ cell loss were evident. To determine if there was a hormonal component to the boric acid-induced testicular lesion, serum levels of basal, hCG-, and LHRH-stimulated testosterone levels were measured. After 4 days of dosing, basal testosterone levels were lower than controls and remained low during dosing. However, serum testosterone levels were similar in both boric acid-treated and control animals after either hCG or LHRH challenge. To determine if boron was preferentially accumulated by the testis, boron levels in testis, epididymis, liver, kidney, and blood were measured. Boron levels had effectively reached steady-state levels by Day 4 and were not differentially concentrated in the tissues examined. Thus, these studies characterize the testicular lesion produced by boric acid exposure and identify a decrease in basal serum testosterone levels in the absence of selective accumulation of boron in the testis.
Record 24 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1981-1986)
TI: Presence of several elements in normal and pathological human semen samples and its origin.
AU: Skandhan,-K-P; Abraham,-K-C
SO: Andrologia. 1984 Nov-Dec; 16(6): 587-8
AB: Spectroscopic analysis of seventeen normal and pathological semen samples was done to reveal the different elements present in it. The sensitivity of the instrument was 1 micrograms/g. The observed elements include sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, silicon, thallium, vanadium, aluminium, mercury and gold. This is the richest source of gold reported in biological materials. An attempt was done to locate the origin of these elements. Thus gold is released from caput epididymis.
Record 25 of 25 in MEDLINE(R)+ (1975-1980)
TI: Methods to assess reproductive effects of environmental chemicals: studies of cadmium and boron administered orally.
AU: Dixon,-R-L; Lee,-I-P; Sherins,-R-J
SO: Environ-Health-Perspect. 1976 Feb; 1359-67
AB: Results of a U.S.S.R.--U.S. cooperative laboratory effort to improve and validate experimental techniques used to assess subtle reproductive effects in male laboratory animals are reported. The present studies attempted to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of cadmium as cadmium chloride and boron as borax (Na2B4O7) and to investigate the mechanism of toxicity in the rat following acute and subchronic oral exposure. In vitro cell separation techniques, in vivo serial mating tests, and plasma assays for hormones were utilized. Effects on the seminal vesicle and prostate were evaluated with chemical and enzyme assays. Clinical chemistry was monitored routinely. Acute oral doses, expressed as boron were 45, 150, and 450 mg/kg while doses for cadmium equivalent were 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg. Rats were also allowed free access to drinking water containing either boron (0.3, 1.0, and 6.0 mg/l.) or cadmium (0.001, and 0.l mg/l.) for 90 days. Randomly selected animals were studied following 30, 60, and 90 days of treatment. These initial studies, utilizing a variety of methods to assess the reproductive toxicity of environmental substances in male animals, suggest that cadmium and boron at the concentrations and dose regimens tested are without significant reproductive toxicity.